Amino Acid Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Bambaranut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.)
Bambaranut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) has been neglected over the years in Kano state, Nigeria. This study evaluated the amino acid and fatty acid contents of Bambaranut. The amino acid profile of Bambaranut was determined using Technicon sequential Multi-sample Amino acid Analyzer (TSM) while the fatty acid composition was determined by GC-MS. The total amino acid content of Bambaranut was 88.37 g/100 g protein, with total essential and nonessential amino acids of 41.20 g/100 g protein (46.62%) and 47.17 g/100 g protein (53.37%), respectively. The total aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids were 7.99 g/100g protein (9.04%) and 2.68 g/100 g protein (3.03%), respectively. All the essential amino acids and aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids were present in good proportions and exceeded the WHO/FAO/UNICEF standard values except leucine, which was below the standard value for children. The GC-MS analysis indicated that the fatty acid present in Bambaranut oil included saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with varying chain lengths, numbers and positions of double bonds. Different fatty acids were detected including arachidic acid (eicosanoic acid). Vitamin C fatty acid conjugate (1-(+)-ascorbic acid-2,6-dihexadecanoate) was also detected indicating the presence of vitamin C in the plant. The presence of arachidic acid (eicosanoic acid) implied that Bambaranut oil may be rich in essential fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids suggested that Bambaranut oil could play a significant role in cardiovascular fitness; while that of saturated fatty acids implied that the oil could be a source of energy. The results indicated that Bambaranut has excellent amino acid and fatty acid profiles and could be used as an ingredient in baby foods, as amino acid supplement, and in pharmaceutical industries.